Consolidation methods Subsidiaries Subsidiaries are companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by Deutsche Telekom. Control only exists if an investor has the power over the investee, is exposed to variable returns, and is able to use power to affect its amount of variable returns. The existence and effect of substantive potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible, including potential voting rights held by other Group companies, are considered when assessing whether an entity is controlled. All subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements, unless the costs of preparing the reporting required for inclusion by means of full consolidation would outweigh the benefits of such reporting, which is primarily the case for subsidiaries which an operating segment or the Group considers to be insignificant based on the following criterion: The sum of all unconsolidated subsidiaries must not account for more than 1 percent of the Group’s total assets, revenue, profit/loss for the year, contingent assets/liabilities, and other financial obligations. If the 1-percent limit is exceeded, Deutsche Telekom determines which companies are to be included in the consolidated financial statements, taking the long-term development of the investment and consolidation effects into account. Aside from the quantitative criteria, qualitative criteria will also be used to assess the materiality of an entity for the consolidated group. Excluding a subsidiary must not significantly change the segment result or the Group’s profit/loss for the year, nor may other significant trends be ignored. Subsidiaries that are not included in the consolidated financial statements due to their subordinate significance, and which were previously recognized under IAS 39 at amortized cost as available-for-sale financial assets, are recognized under other assets as of the 2018 financial year and were reclassified as of January 1, 2018 with a carrying amount of EUR 177 million. Income and expenses of a subsidiary are included in the consolidated financial statements from the acquisition date and remain included in the consolidated financial statements until the date on which the parent company ceases to control the subsidiary. If necessary, the subsidiaries’ accounting principles are aligned with the uniform accounting principles applied by the Deutsche Telekom Group. Intercompany income and expenses, receivables and liabilities, and profits or losses are eliminated. Upon loss of control, a gain or loss from the disposal of the subsidiary is recognized in the consolidated income statement in the amount of the difference between (i) the proceeds from the disposal of the subsidiary, the fair value of the remaining shares, the carrying amount of the non-controlling interests, and the cumulative amounts of other comprehensive income attributable to the subsidiary, and (ii) the carrying amount of the subsidiary’s net assets to be disposed of. Joint operations, joint ventures, and associates Joint arrangements, in which two or more parties have joint control over an activity, must be classified as either joint operations or joint ventures. A joint operation is characterized by the fact that the parties that have joint control of the arrangement (joint operators) have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. A joint operator shall account for the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses relating to its interest in the joint operation as well as its share of the joint assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. In a joint venture, on the other hand, the parties that have joint control of the arrangement (partners) have rights to the net assets of the entity. Associates are companies on which Deutsche Telekom has a significant influence, and that are neither subsidiaries nor joint ventures. As with joint ventures, associates are accounted for using the equity method. Investments in joint ventures and associates that are included in the consolidated financial statements using the equity method are recognized at cost at the time of acquisition. The carrying amount of the investment may include goodwill as the positive difference between the cost of the investment and Deutsche Telekom’s proportionate share in the fair values of the entity’s identifiable net assets. If necessary, the accounting principles of joint ventures and associates are aligned with the uniform accounting principles applied by the Deutsche Telekom Group. The carrying amount of the investment accounted for using the equity method is tested for impairment provided there are indications of impairment. If the carrying amount of the investment exceeds its recoverable amount, an impairment loss must be recognized in the amount of the difference. The recoverable amount is measured at the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. Upon loss of significant influence, a gain or loss from the disposal of the joint venture/associate is recognized in the amount of the difference between (i) the proceeds from the disposal of the shares, the fair value of the remaining shares, and the cumulative amounts of other comprehensive income attributable to the joint venture or associate, and (ii) the carrying amount of the investment to be disposed of. The materiality assessment for jointly controlled entities and associates is generally performed using the same methods as for subsidiaries, but is limited to the criteria of profit/loss for the year, contingent assets and liabilities, and other financial obligations. Business combinations A business combination exists when Deutsche Telekom obtains control of another entity. All business combinations must be accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquired subsidiary is measured at the fair value of the consideration transferred, i.e., the sum of the assets transferred, liabilities assumed, and equity instruments issued. Transaction costs are generally recognized as expense. The acquisition cost is allocated to the acquired assets, liabilities, and contingent liabilities. The identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed are recognized in full at their fair values at the acquisition date, regardless of the level of the investment held by Deutsche Telekom. Goodwill arising in a business combination is measured as the excess of the aggregate of the cost of acquisition, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree, and, in a business combination achieved in stages, the fair value of the equity interest held by Deutsche Telekom in the acquiree prior to the acquisition date over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Any difference arising on the revaluation of equity interests previously held by Deutsche Telekom is recognized in profit or loss. For all business combinations there is an option in relation to the measurement of the non-controlling interests. These can be recognized either directly at their fair value (i.e., the non-controlling interest in the enterprise value of the acquiree) or at the non-controlling interest in the fair value of the net assets acquired. As a result, in the first case, the non-controlling interests also have a share in the goodwill arising from the business combination, while in the second case the non-controlling interest is limited to the revalued assets and liabilities and the goodwill is therefore recognized only as the amount attributable to Deutsche Telekom. Transactions relating to the further acquisition or sale of equity interests with other shareholders that do not affect Deutsche Telekom’s controlling interest do not lead to any change in goodwill. The difference between the fair value of the consideration transferred or received (i.e., the purchase price of the interests) and the carrying amount of the equity attributable to the non-controlling interests must be offset directly against consolidated shareholders’ equity in capital reserves or increases the capital reserves.